Introduction to DNA: What Is a DNA Sequencing Machine? - An online health& Fitness Blog to know more about health, fitness & food.

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Introduction to DNA: What Is a DNA Sequencing Machine?

In 2019 alone, the DNA sequencing market was valued at 4.7 billion dollars. How can such an industry have so much value? What is DNA sequencing used for, anyway?

DNA is unique to each individual and can determine many factors about a person's life such as genealogy and even risk for certain diseases. Keep reading to find out all about what DNA is and how a DNA sequencing machine works.

What Is DNA?

DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is one of the basic types of macromolecules in biological organisms. It is made up of chains of nucleotides bound together in a double helix structure.

DNA is responsible for the genetic makeup and inheritance of almost all of the living organisms on Earth. Strands of DNA reside in every cell in our body. They tell our cells how to grow and reproduce.

Together with ribonucleic acid (RNA), DNA makes up the nucleic acids. RNA is similar to DNA, but it contains slightly different nucleotides and has a different structure. RNA is the biological predecessor to DNA and controls the genes of more primitive organisms.

DNA is comprised of the nucleobases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. These nucleobases bind together in specific ways to form the double helix structure. Adenine binds to thymine, and cytosine binds to guanine.

RNA, on the other hand, replaces thymine with the nucleobase uracil. These nucleobases, together with a sugar molecule, like ribose, and a phosphate molecule, form the nucleotides that comprise DNA and RNA.

DNA reproduces by using special proteins to unzip the helix and create two new strands, one from each half of the old strand.

DNA Sequencing Machine

DNA sequencing, also called genome sequencing, means determining the order of the nucleobase pairs that comprise an organism's DNA.

Although research on DNA sequencing has been around since the 1970s, the technology has vastly improved over the last few decades. The human genome took nearly 13 years to fully sequence. It started in 1990 and wasn't completed until 2003.

The importance of DNA sequencing is clear. Since DNA controls our entire genetic makeup, it can predict things like the risk of disease and genetic abnormalities. It can give your doctor information about what to look out for.

The purpose of DNA sequencing is very broad. It can be used in biotech, forensic biology, virology, and medicine. The results of DNA sequencing are used especially in determining which type of cancer is present in cancer patients.

Since this is a relatively new technology, reading a DNA sequencing report can be confusing, but this guide will help. Whether you're in the industry or just curious about genetics, DNA sequencing is the technology of the future.

Next Steps

Now that you know all about what DNA is and how a DNA sequencing machine works, feel free to do some research on your own to determine if you need your DNA sequenced.

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